Xenophon Continued: Notes on conformation

Xenophon describes what to look for when purchasing a horse in fairly simplistic terms when compared to the level of detail presented in Horse Conformation: Structure, Soundness, and Performance (Equine Research, 2004). However, it is evident that he had a reasonably sound understanding of the importance of form relative to function and equine health. One […]

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Examining Xenophon’s ‘The Art of Horsemanship’ through the Lens of Modern Equine Welfare

A Greek philosopher and cavalry officer in the 4th century BC, Xenophon is highly regarded for his writings on horsemanship, which advocate for the humane handling of horses. He produced one of the earliest written accounts on horse conformation, care, riding, and training. In examining Xenophon’s teachings in The Art of Horsemanship (1893 translation), a […]

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